use of force

Fighting continues over Nagorno-Karabakh; ceasefire does not hold

Fighting continues in and over Nagorno-Karabakh. The Russian-brokered ceasefire agreed upon in Moscow on Saturday is not holding. It is time for the U.N. Security…

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International Law and the targeted killing of Qasem Soleimani

Developing The targeted killing of Qasem Soleimani (قاسم سلیمانی) in Bagdad on January 3, 2020 was a military action with strategic consequences. These include a…


Apple bows to Russian pressure, shows Crimea as Russian territory

Apple has recently bowed to Russian pressure and started showing the Crimea on its maps as Russian territory. See “Weltkarte: Bei Apple ist die Krim…


REPRISE (2019) — Veterans’ Day, 2011: “Where have all the flowers gone, long time passing?”

Originally published on November 11, 2011 My uncle died in a field in northern France with a German bullet in his head. To him, and…


Without International Law, “anarchy is loosed upon the world.”

The Second Coming (published 1921) Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;…






Foreign policy without International Law

Since the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the foundational writings of Hugo Grotius, nations have paid attention to international law in…